This paper will provide a summary about history of territory of Iran.
Undoubtedly, Pasargadae Region is the first destination of tourists who are traveling to visit Fars Province and Shiraz City from far and near countries. This area is the cultural and civilization symbol of this territory indicting the antiquity of Persian Culture.
Pasargadae is a town located in 130km of Shiraz City in Fars Province. Pasargadae area is located at the north of Fars Province among Zagros Mounts. This complex includes antiquities going back to the middle age of the Paleolithic Era and Achaemenid Dynasty; however, most works in this area are memorial of Achaemenid Dynasty.
There are different views for the meaning of Pasargadae. Some people believe that Pasargadae obtained its name from word “Pasargad” and some others believe that it has gotten its name from the name of Pasargadae meaning Pasargadae Tribe. According to some people, this name has been changed from Parseh Grad, meaning “Persian Territory”; however, no one could provide an exact meaning for it.
The antiquities and monuments of this complex include:
Name of Shiraz, Pasargadae and Persepolis is shining besides Cyrus’s name. Cyrus the Second, the founder of Achaemenid, called as Cyrus the Great, has just buried in a distance of 1km from Pasargadae Castles in a Rocky Monument.
The importance of the Cyrus the Great’s Tomb is because it is the only monument of Pasargadae Complex as mentioned in Greece References.
Cyrus the Second was killed in 529 BC during an attack to Scythian Tribes in Central Asia.
The monument of Cyrus Tomb is located at the southern part of Pasargadae Royal Garden. The rocks of this monument are of type yellowish white lime supplied from Sivand Mine. This monument has been comprised from two parts, first comprising from 6 stairways and second comprising from attic on the monument.
One of the elegances of this monument, albeit eliminated in this time, is an image of a flower located at the upper corner of the monument with its figure draw for the first time by Johann Albrecht von Maand Mendelssou in 1638 after visiting from Pasargadae and then it was interpreted by David Struttach in 1964.
The structure of Cyrus’s Tomb is very attractive and fascinating; it is a structure that persisted after all this time!
This structure that has been constructed without using any mortar and connected by metal joints is considered as one of the wonders of such a beautiful monument.
Before considering this monument as an antiquity, people of Iran consider it as a symbol of their identity and originality and such respect it that during ritual ceremony of this territory huge hand of Iranian culture and civilization lovers flow to this area throughout the world for refreshing the anniversary of the founder of human civilization, the first Achaemenid King, Integrator of the World.
Abunasr Castle or Solomon’s Mother Throne is called as a place where located at the east of Shiraz on top of a hill.
This castle has been just named in the travelogues of tourists such as Shardin and Carsten Nibor and Robert Corpwert in which it is called as “Solomon’s Mother” Castle.
There are many different views about the antiquity of this monument. There has been discovered coin, pottery and stone dishes related to Achaemenid, Seluky, Parthian and Sassanid eras. Therefore, due to the presence of Achaemenid Ports in this monument, it was imagined that the antiquity of this monument goes back to Achaemenid era; however it was then determined that these ports have been transported to this place in other eras due to different reasons and after a while they were transferred to their main place, i.e. Persepolis.
Berm Dalak Carving has been located close to this site. One could perceive the importance of political situation of the country for that time from a Fireplace discovered in this place. The news for Conquer of Sassanid on Romans has been inserted on this Fireplace.
One could find out that this fireplace with the news of Sassanid Conquer on Romans inserted on it, indicates discharging the debt and or recite conducted by a person against conquer of the king of his territory; this fireplace is currently kept in Zinat Al-Malouk House.
In the past, this place was being used as one of the Highways of South of Iran. Discovering the Greece and Chinese Coins and Beads in this place proves this claim.
Bullet and nuts (505 pcs) are other works discovered in this area going back to late Sassanid and early Islamic era. According to discoveries of 1934, there were founded some tombs on top of the castle having cluster and circle shapes. The interesting point was that these tombs had the similar structures.
Relief of Bahram
Bahram Relief is two carved images located under Cyrus’s Tomb illustrating two battles of the kings of this territory carved beautifully on the solid and cold rock. In case of the upper image, one could probably state that it indicates the image of Bahram the Second; however there is no consensus for the feature of the lower image.
The upper image indicates Bahram Relief with dimensions of 7m× 3m illustrating the battle of King of Iran in which he could conquer on his enemy. In this image, one could clearly see the wings of an eagle extended from the crown of the king. The interesting point of this image is the kind of clothing for king beautifully illustrated.
At the bottom of the image of Bahram the Second, there is another image in which the battle of a king has been illustrated as well. Considering the details of this image, such as lack of crown, armor, long ribbons of his back, ribbons of boots, etc…, it could be understood that this is the image of Bahram the Third who could be raised after his father and according to the details of the image of enemy, one could argue that it isn’t the enemy of princess and or king’s.
Pasargadae Royal Garden
What is currently known as Pasargadae Complex is a set of monuments that might not be related to each other at the first glance. However, by a little more care and contemplation in this complex and its monuments, we could find out that they follow from such a specific discipline that according to Strohnakh:
“The arrangement and direction of locating these three key monuments could be everything except random and accidental”.
According to some historians, the monuments of Persepolis complex have been established in term of a complex called as “Pasargadae Garden” based on specific symmetry and discipline; however, the garden has been just eliminated by time with only its monuments remained.
One could state that Pasargadae Complex is a full representation of Original Iranian Garden!
Darvazeh (Gate) Palace
Countries’ Gate Palace, Nations Gates Palace and or Waiting Palace is considered as one of the monuments of Pasargadae Complex.
This palace located in the Western North part of Kingdom Arg has been also called as Xerxes Palace. The reason for such naming might be due to completing this monument by himself just after the death of Cyrus the Great.
This palace has three gates, i.e. western, eastern and southern as well as a great hall with four columns with three columns of four are yet standing.
Western gate facing the stairway of Persepolis has symbolized in its both sides with two Giant Bulls.
Southern gate has two door matches with its hinge places could be currently seen.
Eastern gate is similar to western gate with the status of two giant bulls in its both sides together with eagle’s wing and human head.
This place called as “Palace of Nations” because it was the entrance gate for foreign guests to this castle and they could enter to other places of Persepolis after being permitted.
This hall was indeed used as a waiting room for guests of Persepolis.
Royal Garden Fountains
There are located a set of fountains in the form of basins and streams among Pasargadae Garden. Pasargadae Garden Fountain were being used for irrigation of gardens and had high-tech of its time. this irrigation system in basin and stream shapes, besides having irrigation system, were being constructed for decorating the Pasargadae Garden and this indicates the intelligence of architects of that era.
Tomb of Cambyses
Tomb of Cambyses is another architectural masterpiece of Pasargadae Complex. Cambyses was the second king of Achaemenid dynasty and son of Cyrus the Great.
This monument is also known as Solomon Prison (that was common in Islamic Period).
Cambyses is reminded and named by titles such as Conqueror of Egyptian Pharaoh, Upper and Lower King of Egypt as well.
Tomb of Cambyses is one of the most important monuments of Achaemenid because according to the studies of historians, influenced by this monument, Darius established a similar structure in Relief of Rustam (Zoroastrian Kaaba).
Close to Persepolis in Shiraz there is a monument called “Rostam Throne” (or Takht-e- Rostam) and according to some historians, this monument was being constructed as a tomb for Cambyses; however by his early death, this monument left incomplete and Cambyses was buried in his current place where his tomb located.
Shiraz is the resting place of scholars of Persian Poetry and Literature. Saadi Shirazi is one of such scholars. Saadi’s name is familiar to you because he was the first Persian speaking poet whose works translated and published in Europe. Saadi was living in 13th century.
Most great poets of this land have modeled from his poetry style namely Hafez Shirazi who modeled Saadi’s poems for composing his poems and sonnets.
For celebrating this great Persian poet, 21 April of each year (first day of Ordibehesht) is named thanking for beginning of Writing Golestan. Saadi Shirazi is among the few poets and writers with great reputation in his time.
Saadiya, the Tomb of Saadi was used as a Monastery for a time and was a place for worship of Sheikh in where Saadi was residing at the end of his life.
The tomb of another famous mystic of this territory is located close to Quran Gate besides Hafezia and Tomb of Hafez. This tomb that is located besides beautiful Roknabad Spring is the tomb of Khajavi Kermani.
There are a few caves a little above the tomb used as a place for worship and austerity of people and at the end of his life, Khajeh was worshiping in these caves.
Entering to Shiraz, Hafezia is the first place attracting any passenger and tourist towards itself.
After naming different cities, various images are imagined by us. Hafezia is one of these images formed in our mind after hearing the name of Shiraz‼
Hafezia is the tomb of Hafex, great Iranian poet who was living in 14th century. He was called by titles such as Lesan Al-Gayb, Nazem and Olia and Lesan Al-Orafa.
If tourists who are interested in cultural tours haven’t yet scheduled for traveling to Iran, it is very interesting for them to arrange their schedule for visiting in 12 October, coincided with Hafez’s Memorial Date in Shiraz and we can hosting you in such a great commemoration day.
His main name is Khajeh Shams Al-Din Mohammad Ibn Baha Al-Din Mohammad Shirazi and because he memorized Quran during his adolescence according to 14 stories, thus he was named as Hafez.
According to current tradition during different ancient ceremonies and festivals, it is common for people to turn on Divane-Hafez to provide a prediction of their fate in this book.
You may ask this question why people in this territory are seeking for their fate in the poems of this great poet‼
Answering to this question, it is better to recite a story for you:
“In many parts of Divane-Hafez, you can see that he has mentioned of wine while it is banned according to Islamic religious; for this reason, during his death, there were some different views among a group of his disciples and lovers how to bury him. Some people imagined that he isn’t a Muslim and objected for his burial in Muslims Cemetery. Consequently, they concluded to work out for this dilemma by searching his Divan.
They opened a page of his Divan and faced to following poem:
قدم دریغ مدار از جنازه حافظ که گرچه غرق گناه است،میبرندش به بهشت
It means that:
Oh people, please don’t hesitate to participate in the funeral of Hafez because although he is guilty, however, the great God will finally enter him into the Eternal Paradise.
Need more information about Shiraz City, the Symbol of Civilization in, Persian Territory, Shiraz, City of Zandian, please read this article.
Need more information about Shiraz, City of Gardens, Prosperity and Civilization, please read this article.