In this article from Alibaba Tourism Magazine, we are going to talk about one of the valuable heritage of the Timurid period. Amirchakhmaq Square in Yazd is one of the most important historical squares in Iran, which is located in the city of Yazd. This square and its surrounding areas, as a complex, was built by Amir Chakhmaq and his wife Fatemeh Khatoon, which has formed part of the historical identity of Yazd. An identity made of the efforts and consensus of two people. Fatemeh Khatoon’s strong presence in the development of this building is an interesting part of the story that is not seen in many historical buildings.
Where is Amirchakhmaq Square in Yazd?
Amirchakhmaq Square is one of the historical tourism complexes of Yazd, which includes different sections such as bazaar, reliance, mosque, two reservoirs and a tomb. This building is located in the center of Yazd, Imam Khomeini Street.
Who was Amirchakhmaq?
Amir Jalaluddin Chaghmaq Shami (Amir Chakhmaq) was one of the commanders of Shahrokh Teymouri who was appointed as the ruler of Yazd.
What is the best time to visit this field?
The best time to travel to Yazd and visit this square is from March to May and autumn season.
What attractions are there in this square?
Amirchakhmaq complex has various attractions such as mosque, reliance, Haji Ghanbar bazaar, water storage and the tomb of Seti-Fatemeh.
Amirchakhmaq Square complex in Yazd consists of different sections such as reliance, bazaar, mosque, water storage and tomb. In this article, I will talk about the beauties of Amirchakhmaq Square, the antiquity of this historical monument and the details of its different parts, and finally I invite you to sit for a few minutes by the beautiful pond with its noisy fountains and think about the colorful past of this spectacular monument.
Amir Chakhmaq Square, one of the beauties of Yazd
Amirchakhmaq Square in Yazd is one of the sights of Yazd, which as a historical and tourism complex, has many fans among the people of Yazd. This square, which is also known as Mirchkhmaq or Mirchmaq among the people of Yazd, consists of different parts such as a bazaar, a support, a mosque, two fountains and a tomb, in which a large pond with its attractive sculptures stands out. Shaban Caravanserai is located on the north side of Maidan and Hammam and Baftieha Caravanserai is located on the west side of Amirchakhmaq Square. Amirchakhmaq Square collection is registered as a valuable historical monument in the list of national monuments of Iran.
You are probably wondering what is the difference between this field and other fields? Honestly, Amirchakhmaq Square is a very valuable and meaningful place for Yazidis, which has marked the history of this city. Amirchakhmaq Square is a symbol of Yazd province which is known as (the field of Yazdi epics). What is more important than this?!
This square has long been a place for people of Yazd to gather and gather in various conditions, such as marches, demonstrations and religious ceremonies. One of the most important ceremonies that is held in this place every Muharram is the palm-growing ceremony, the glory of which attracts many tourists to this city every year.
Amir Chakhmaq Group
The history of Amirchakhmaq Square in Yazd dates back to the Timurid rule in the ninth century AH. This square was built by the order of the ruler of Yazd, Amir Halaluddin Chakhmaq and with the concurrence of his wife Fatemeh Khatoon. One of the reasons for building the most prosperous square was the city of Yazd and its development. Regarding the order of construction of the building, it can be said that first the new Grand Mosque was built in a place outside the city of Yazd, ie Deh or Lower Duhok, which later became the center of Yazd with the expansion of the city. After the construction of the mosque, other sections such as the public bath, caravanserai, reliance, water reservoirs, etc. were built and the Amirkhchmaq complex was completed.
This building remained with the same name during the Safavid and Qajar eras, but in each of the different periods of history underwent small and large changes . Shah Abbas reconstructed and restored Amirchakhmaq Square and ordered the construction of four squares on the caravanserai. In the 13th century AH, the square and the entrance of the bazaar became Hosseinieh. However, at that time, Hosseineh did not have the current application. During the reign of Fath Ali Shah Qajar, a person named Haji Hossein Attar renovated the Grand Mosque and added a new section to the mosque’s nave.
The tragic use of Amirchakhmaq Square in Yazd was in the early days of the Pahlavi regime, when it became a burial ground and a tomb, which the Pahlavi government blocked. By destroying the tombs, Pahlavi turned Amirchakhmaq Square into the same lively square.
Amirchakhmaq Square witnessed many changes during Reza Shah. Part of this change was due to the street killings in Yazd, which led to the destruction of some of the walls of the square. During this period, a smaller square was defined, the mosque and the square in front of Hosseinieh were merged, and finally this complex was converted into a building that you are now witnessing. Among the walls of Amirchakhmaq complex, only the southeastern wall remains, which is the main body of the support.
Who is Amir Chakhmaq?
Amir Jalaluddin Chaghmaq Shami (Amir Chakhmaq) was one of the commanders of the great king of the Timurid period, Shahrokh Teymouri, who was elected as the ruler of Yazd in 836 AH by Shahrokh Teymouri. Amir Chakhmaq, following the example of Shahrokh’s monarchy and with the help of his wife Fatemeh Khatun or Seti Fatemeh, spent a lot of time developing the city of Yazd. Amirchakhmaq is famous for his activities in the construction and development of Yazd.
Among the civil activities of Amirchakhmaq, it is possible to build a thermal bath in front of the Great Mosque of Yazd, build a brick pulpit in the Grand Mosque and complete the tiling. Its pillars mentioned the restoration of water in the Duhok neighborhood through the drilling of wells and the reconstruction and revitalization of the Larestan Garden. But his most important civil achievement is the construction of a new Grand Mosque, two reservoirs and a support, which is now known as the Amirchakhmaq Square complex in Yazd.
Sights of Amir Chakhmaq Square
If you have been careful so far, Amirchakhmaq Square is named after the Amirchakhmaq Square complex. What has made Amirchakhmaq Square one of the tourist attractions of Yazd is its different parts, each of which has a unique antiquity and beauty and together they have formed an amazing collection. In the following, I will introduce the different parts of this collection.
1- Haji Ghanbar Bazaar
The old bazaar of Yazd is one of the sights of Yazd, which in the Pahlavi era was divided into two parts due to the street killings in Yazd, and even a part of the bazaar was destroyed by this operation. Currently, the northern part of the bazaar, known as Qaisaria, is more prosperous than other sections. The goods sold in the old bazaar of Amirchakhmaq Square include a variety of fabrics, traditional Yazd sweets, gold, carpets, etc.
Haji Ghanbar Bazaar is the oldest part of Yazd Indoor Bazaar, the reason for this naming was the construction of this building by Nizamuddin Haji Ghanbar Jahanshahi is the ruler of Yazd in the ninth century AH. The 500-year-old Haji Ghanbar Bazaar, beautiful architecture and tiles, has made it one of the sights of Yazd in the Amirchakhmaq Square complex of Yazd.
Haji Ghanbar Bazaar on Google Map
During the Pahlavi era, due to civil operations and street killing in This area was part of the walls of the bazaar and the only main wall left from that period is related to the support of Amirchakhmaq. This wall is a 3-story wall with brick pavilions that are stacked on top of each other. The middle part of the pavilions is higher than the pavilions on both sides and has eye-catching decorations and tiles. For this reason, this pavilion is known as Shahneshin, which was a place for elders and high-ranking officials to sit and watch the taziyeh ceremony in the square. The booths on both sides were also for women and ordinary people.
If I want to talk about the place of reliance in Amirchakhmaq Square, I must say that this building is the entrance to Haj Ghanbar Bazaar and is located right next to the Grand Mosque. In addition, one of the booths has access to the complex’s reservoir.
3- Amirchakhmaq Mosque
Amirchakhmaq Mosque, also known as the New Grand Mosque or Duhok Mosque, is one of the oldest buildings in the Amirchakhmaq Square complex in Yazd, which was built by the order of Amir Chakhmaq and his wife Fatemeh Khatun in 841 AH, on the south side of the square. At the time of its construction, this mosque was built in a place called Duhok, which was located outside the city of Yazd, but with the expansion of the city, it entered the urban fabric.
Amirchakhmaq Mosque was included in the list of national monuments of Iran in 1341. In terms of size, prestige and beauty, this mosque is the second most important mosque in Yazd after the Yazd Grand Mosque, whose impressive architecture is well-known among the architectures of all mosques. The beautiful green dome of the mosque, around which an inscription in the Kufic language is written, attracts the attention of every tourist from afar.
Amirchakhmaq Mosque has some prominent architectural features that distinguish it from other mosques;
- The interesting feature of this mosque is its different entrances that have made it possible to access it from different neighborhoods. One is the entrance of the mosque from the adjacent alley and the other is from the courtyard or courtyard of the tomb of Seti Fatemeh.
- The second important architectural feature of Amirchakhmaq Mosque is its two naves. This mosque has a nave for winter and a nave for summer. The summer nave creates a cool atmosphere in summer due to its architectural structure and windbreak at the top. The winter nave is located on both sides of the entrance hall, which provides light and heat in the winter cold by reflecting sunlight on the marble stones of the nave.
- The third outstanding feature of the mosque is its unique tiles in the altar and its different parts, which will delight you with their eye-catching colors.
- It may be interesting to you that Amirchakhmaq Mosque does not have a minaret. The real cause of this is not clear, but there are two possibilities. The first possibility is that in the past, mosques built by women did not have minarets. The second possibility is the importance of the mosque to both Sunni and Shiite groups, because Sunni mosques have one minaret and Shiite mosques have two minarets. The lack of a minaret of Amirchakhmaq Mosque has provided a place for unity and empathy between Sunnis and Shiites so that they can pray together regardless of the appearance of the mosque.
- Amirchakhmaq Mosque in its different sections has inscriptions in the third and Kufic scripts, which is one of its attractions.
4- Palm of Amir Chakhmaq
You may have heard the term palmistry. Palmistry is a symbolic ceremony that is performed during the Muharram mourning period in cities such as Yazd, Estahban, Kashan, Shahroud and .. Among the palm-picking ceremonies, the palm-picking ceremony in Yazd is world famous.
The palm is actually a very large wooden coffin with It is decorated with black and green cloths and is carried by a crowd of mourners. In addition to black cloths, elements such as mirrors, daggers and… are installed on the palm, each of which is considered as a symbol of the events and people of Ashura.
Amirchakhmaq palm is one of the oldest palms in Iran, which is known as Heydariyeh palm. The Heydariyeh palm is made in the shape of a large cypress tree with a height of about 8.5 meters and is located in the east of Amirchakhmaq Square. The cypress tree is a symbol of freedom.
This palm dates back to 450 years ago and the Safavid era. According to the evidence, the Amirchakhmaq palm has been in Amirchakhmaq Square in Yazd since 1229 and was moved by mourners again on Ashura 1396 after 70 years. This palm is kept in the same area on other days of the year.
5- Tomb of Seti Fatemeh
The tomb or tomb of Seti Fatima is one of the sights of Yazd in the north of Amirchakhmaq Square, which, unlike many tombs whose names we have heard, belongs to a woman. Setia Fatima or the baby Fatima Khatun was the wife of Amir Jalaluddin Chakhmaq, who was known in the ninth century AH as a learned and powerful woman.
The word (sati) is derived from the Sanskrit word (sat), which over time has found the meaning of a high-ranking lady.
After her death, Seti Fatima was buried in the building she had ordered to be built, near the Amirchakhmaq Mosque. This spectacular tomb is a small building with feminine elegance that shows the identity of this powerful lady. The entrance to the tomb of St. Fatima is a double wooden door that leads you through the small corridor into the dome. His two-story marble tomb is located in the center of the dome, on which a cypress design is carved as a symbol of resurrection and life after death.
The mud dome of the tomb of Stifatemeh is the only cucumber dome in Iran that has been built according to the unique architecture of the Timurid period. A similar example of this dome in Herat, Afghanistan, belongs to Lady Goharshad.
In a useful comprehensive book, a book on the history and geography of Yazd, in relation to the tomb of Seti-Khatun, it is stated that: He said and decorated it with colorful tiles and the deceased is buried there. “He also dedicated a mill to his tomb, and the result is 800 ounces per year by weight of wheat flour, the eleventh of which is spent on the tomb.” This part of the book came from different sites, and I repeated it.
Fatima Water Reservoir
Seti-Fatemeh Reservoir or Panj Badgir Reservoir is one of the reservoirs of Amirchakhmaq Square, which was built by the order of Seti-Fatemeh in Sheikh Assadaleh Alley, on the north side of Amirchakhmaq Square. This reservoir has a large reservoir. Seti-Fatima water reservoir with an egg-shaped dome, a brick entrance and five tall windmills built in an octagonal shape is very attractive to tourists.
Zurkhaneh Sahib al-Zaman
Due to the change in the unuse of Seti-Fatima water reservoir, this building was turned into a zurkhaneh called Sahib al-Zaman Zurkhaneh in 2001 by the efforts of Pahlavan Ali Darhami. Currently, this zurkhaneh is the largest zurkhaneh in Yazd. Tourists can take advantage of the 40-minute Zurkhaneh Sahib al-Zaman and watch a few minutes of ancient sports movements.
Ab Anbar Tekiyeh Amir Chakhmaq
Tekyeh Amirchakhmaq Reservoir, also known as Haji Ghanbar Reservoir, was built by order of Nizamuddin Haji Ghanbar Jahanshahi in the distance between Tekiyeh and Haji Ghanbar Bazaar. Tekiyeh Reservoir reaches the water collection point with 50 steps and has four four-way windbreaks, three of which have been repaired so far. Amir Chakhmaq Reliance Reservoir has some unique structural features:
In Tekiyeh Reservoir, water and air conditioning are completely inside the ground.
The wind deflectors are built in the wall of Haji Ghanbar Bazaar and have a completely different structure from other wind deflectors in Yazd.
The general structure of most reservoirs is such that the vertical stairs are connected to the middle, but in the reservoir of Amir Chakhmaq, the stairs and the treasury are built next to each other. In fact, if they wanted to have a structure like other reservoirs, they would have to empty the minarets, which would destroy their strength and could destroy them.
Amirchakhmaq Square Museum
A small museum has been created at the entrance of Amirchakhmaq water reservoir, right where we reach the water collection point after the stairs. In this museum, which is known as the Museum of Amirchakhmaq Square in Yazd, old objects related to water and people in ancient times are exhibited, which are definitely worth watching.
Other places of interest in Amir Chakhmaq Square
So far, I have explained about the most important parts and sights of the Amirchakhmaq Square complex, but the different parts of this complex still continue.
Baftieh Bath and Caravanserai in the west of Tekiyeh, a spectacular pool in front of Tekiyeh with fountains, sculptures that symbolize the role and importance of water in Saghaei culture, the Tomb of the Unknown Martyrs and Shaban Caravanserai on the right Other tourist attractions are Amirchakhmaq Square.
Where is Amir Chakhmaq Square?
Address: Amir Chakhmaq Square: Yazd, Imam Khomeini St., Amir Chakhmaq Square
Amir Chakhmaq Square on Google Map
How to go to Amir Chakhmaq Square?
It is possible to visit Amirchakhmaq Square complex by private car, taxi and bus. If you are using a personal car, you can get help from the location of this place on Google Map.
If you intend to use the bus, you must take the buses of the Quran Gate Terminal – Martyrs of the Altar Terminal or the Besat Crossroads – Railway and get off at the Martyrs’ Crossroads station. From this station, it is a few minutes walk to Amirchakhmaq Square.
What are the sights around the Amirchakhmaq complex?
One of the sights of Yazd, which is located near Amirchakhmaq Square on Imam Street, is the Sahla Bana Ali complex. This complex was built in the eighth century AH in the form of a tomb and a mosque. It is probable that the tomb of clay and mud of Sahl ibn Ali contains the body of Shaykh al-Islam Sa’id Jamal al-Islam Muhammad ibn Ahad ibn Muhammad ibn Mehrizad, one of the famous mystics of Yazd.
It’s time to sit by the pool for a while!
As I promised you from the beginning of the route, we were going to sit at the end of the route for a while by the beautiful pool of Amirchakhmaq Square and think for a few minutes about what happened. Amirchakhmaq Square is a square full of surprises.
When you walk in it, you are both present and not present, it can be said that you are suspended between the past and the present. After that, enjoy being suspended, walk in the square for hours and do not miss the beautiful and enchanting tiles of the minarets of Amirchakhmaq Square. Yazd is one of the cities that should be used moment by moment.