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Introduction of Kermanji Kurdish language and culture in Khorasan province

ISNA / This news was written about introducing the Kurdish language and culture of Kermanji in Khorasan province for you, dear audience.

Goli Shadkam, a researcher on the Kurdish language and culture of Kermanji Khorasan, said: “Serious and effective measures must be taken to preserve local languages ​​and dialects, including Kurdish Kermanji, because the local languages ​​and dialects of Iran are a treasure.” They are irreplaceable ones that have lasted for centuries or thousands of years and may disappear in a few decades. He added: “Kermanji Kurdish” is the Kurdish language of northern Khorasan, which is spoken in two provinces of North Khorasan and Razavi in ​​cities such as Chenaran, Quchan, Farooj, Shirvan, Bojnourd, Esfarayen, Kalat, Dargaz, Ashkhaneh, as well as parts. They live in Kurdish cities such as Neishabour and Sabzevar. Also, large groups of Kurds from northern Khorasan have migrated to the metropolises of Tehran, Mashhad and Karaj in recent decades and have settled in these cities and their functions.

Researcher of Kermanji Kurdish language and culture of Khorasan continued: Kermanji Kurdish of Khorasan is a northern branch of Kurdish languages ​​which is a subset of Iranian languages ​​and it seems that more than one million speakers in northern Khorasan speak Kermanji Kurdish. They do. It is worth mentioning that in Khorasan region, the registration of the Kurdish dialect of Kermanji was one of the first examples of the registration of local indigenous languages.

Shadkam explained: This language has many similarities and similarities with Kermanji Kurdish in the west of the country, as well as Kermanji Kurdish in other countries such as Turkey, Syria and the former Soviet Republic. This shows that all of these are from the same family. The importance of this cultural element for registration is that a language, apart from its very important function in communicating between members of a society, is a tool for transmitting culture. These are the languages ​​through which we can transmit cultures, oral literature, folklore, skills, knowledge, experiences and beliefs of a people or a nation.

The undeniable effect of Kurdish language on the cohesion and solidarity of the Kurds of North Khorasan

He said: “Considering the vividness of the work and the wide range of this vital cultural element, as well as pointing out that this language has an undeniable effect on the cohesion and solidarity of the Kurds of northern Khorasan and is a tool through which the members of this people can Can understand each other, communicate with each other and consider themselves to belong to a “us”; Finally, this element had all the necessary conditions for national registration. Therefore, during several months of field work, the file of this work was sent to the National Registration Council after preparing the documents and completing its form and after being approved by the Provincial Registration Council. Nationally registered.

Researcher of Kermanji Kurdish language and culture of Khorasan said: “Since Kermanji Kurdish of Khorasan was studied as a member of a large Kurdish language family, according to the members of the National Registration Council, it was registered as” Kermanji Kurdish dialect of Khorasan “. But it is obvious that it is an independent language in the northern region of Khorasan.

Referring to the history of this language in Khorasan province, Shadkam said: We can refer to the Kurdish language of Khorasan at least to the last 5 centuries. According to historical documents and books, the Kurdish tribes and clans of Kermanj during the Safavid kings were sent to northern Khorasan to confront the invading Uzbek tribes, who after defeating the invaders and expelling them from the northeastern borders of Iran settled in a large area of ​​northern Khorasan. ; However, some scholars and historians believe that the history of the Kurds in Khorasan dates back to centuries before the Safavids. However, it can be said that this language is several thousand years old in other Kurdish regions, which include western Iran, parts of present-day Turkey, Syria and Iraq.

The growth of urbanization and monolingual education has diminished the ability to speak the mother tongue among individuals

Regarding the comparison of this language in the past and the present, he explained: Until about 4 decades ago, the natural process of language transmission from generation to generation took place naturally, which means that families after the birth of their child to They spoke Kurdish and their children went through this cycle of mother tongue transmission. Unfortunately, in the last three or four decades, with the growth of urbanization and migration from rural to urban areas, formal monolingual education in schools and the mass media, which broadcast mainly in the official language, has created a rift between generations and fathers. And mothers also prefer to replace the Persian language over time.

This researcher of Kurdish language and culture in Kermanji emphasized: “Since the construction and expansion of schools in villages, nomadic villages and also small towns was definitely a very good step for the development of society and the growth of literacy, but given that these schools are single They were language-based and taught only in the official language, and in some cases families were advised not to use their mother tongue at home. It is useful and worthless, which ultimately reduces the social status of the mother tongue among speakers and encourages them to leave their mother tongue.

Failure of the young Kurdish generation to use their mother tongue will lead to the decline of the Kurdish language

Shadkam added: “For example, today in the northern region of Khorasan, unfortunately, the new generation is rapidly moving away from the mother tongue, so that now we are witnessing the phenomenon of language change among the Kurds of Khorasan, which will lead to language decline if continued.” “In the villages, younger fathers and mothers have decided in the last decade or two not to speak Kurdish to their children anymore and have replaced it with Persian, and their thinking has been that we speak Persian to our children,” he said. We do so that they do not get into trouble at school. According to field research, many families, when asked why they do not speak their mother tongue at home with their children, said they were concerned about their children’s education at school and because they themselves generally had bitter memories. They have been since school, they do not want their children to get into trouble, so they have preferred to talk to Persian children from the beginning.

This researcher of Kurdish language and culture in Kermanji continued: “Unfortunately, in our country’s educational system, there is no provision for children who speak different native and local languages.” These children are not prepared in any way before entering school, and when they enter school, they are taught lessons in the official language, which puts a lot of pressure on these children as well as their families. Usually, the education system, instead of thinking of a solution to this issue, puts pressure on families not to speak to their children in their mother tongue at home, and to speak Persian to children from the beginning so that they do not have problems learning lessons at school.

Regarding the introduction of the Kurdish language and culture of Kermanji in Khorasan province, Shadkam stated: In the educational systems of developed countries, children whose mother tongue is different from the official language are prepared before entering school and during the study period. They are also constantly supported and considered so that they can enter the formal education system with the least harm, but unfortunately in our educational system in areas that have a language other than the official language, the burden of learning the official language is placed on families and children. As a result, in order to reduce the pressure on themselves and their children and prevent academic failure and educational problems, the family removes the mother tongue from the verbal communication between themselves and their children, and teaches Persian to their children from the very beginning of birth.

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