One of the valuable historical monuments, Qom Grand Mosque which has a very beautiful architecture. Join us in this fascinating and readable article to inform you about the architectural wonders of Qom Grand Mosque or the oldest mosque in Qom.
Location & History
The architecture of the Qom Grand Mosque is located on Azar Street and the neighborhood of the Grand Mosque, and to access it, you must enter the Ammar Yaser Highway or the Ghadir Tunnel from Azar Street. This mosque is near Rey Gate. There are many opinions about the antiquity of this mosque. Some believe that the oldest mosque in Qom was built during the Seljuk period and the 6th lunar century, but others believe that this mosque was built in 265 AH by Abu al-Sadim Hassan ibn Ali ibn Am al-Ash’ari. Meanwhile, some say that the oldest mosque in Qom was built by order of Imam Hassan Asgari in the 3rd lunar century, and for this reason, according to religious scholars, this mosque is very important in the Islamic world. Abdul Jalil Razi says that this building was built by Bahaddin Kamal Sabet Qomi during the Seljuk period.
The architecture of the Qom Grand Mosque includes a nave, a courtyard, an entrance and a dome. This building was built in different periods and it can be said that the dome is older than other parts. The two entrances in the western part and the northern part are connected to the nave, and very beautiful tiles as well as unique moqarnas have been used in the two porches. The porches of this mosque are very beautiful and it can be said that such a porch is unique.
Dimensions of these porches are 7 meters by 14 meters and the height of the opening is 18 meters. On the edge of the porch, very beautiful decorations have been used, which are decorated with two arches with a screw brass design and turquoise tiles with dimensions of 40 by 45. In the southern part of the porch, there is a mausoleum 30 meters high and 23 meters wide, which is a large altar in the southern part of this mausoleum. In the northern part of the porch, there are 3 entrance doors that have different sizes.
In the eastern and western part of the architecture of the Qom Grand Mosque, there are two entrance doors that open to two earrings. Next to the porches, there are rafters that are 18 meters high and 2 and a half meters wide. In general, the number of these jars is 4. On the front of the porch, which is the front part, and also on the sides, there is an inscription with dimensions of 28 meters by 1 meter. In general, there are naves on 3 sides of this mosque, which belong to the time of Fath Ali Shah.
In the eastern nave, there are 9 rows of three springs on top of 9 quadrangular columns and 18 hexagonal columns, which are pillars with iron and glass doors in front of the courtyard. In the western nave, there are 9 gates in 3 rows. There was a basement at the end of the western nave, which was built by order of Shahab al-Mulk. He also built the golden wreaths of the ancient courtyard of this mosque in 1305. The northern nave has a porch in front of it that has 4 springs.
The only drawback that can be taken from this beautiful building is the rise of the floor of the nave by one meter. The reason for this crypt height is available. This crypt has its own features and has a pleasant air. Several altars have been built in the naves, and the royal shrine is one meter wide and 4 meters long. This royal shrine belongs to the Qajar period and its decorations are made of 7-color brick tiles. The rest of the porch, which is about 30 meters, has rafters, spiers and stone plinths.
In this part, there is a belt inscription that is written with the third line and the bed of Surah Tabarak. In the same inscription, there are inscriptions that show that during the time of Fath Ali Shah and in 1246, the naves were built and restored. Currently, only the name of Fath Ali Shah can be seen in this inscription. Among the other features of the sanctuary of this mosque, we can mention the existence of lattices for air entry and exit and keeping the air of this part cool, as well as providing lighting. These grilles can be seen in different parts of the mosque. Around the altar, there are stairs that are like a pulpit and have given a special beauty to this part.
The dome of this mosque was built during the Seljuk period and is one of the most magnificent domes built at this time. A large courtyard is located in front of the porch and is rectangular. Around this courtyard are naves, north and south porches, basements, earrings, domes and entrances. In this rectangular courtyard, there is a pool right in the middle, which added to the stylization of the space and its beauty. In the middle of this water basin, there is a reservoir that is closed today. Among other unique architectural features of this building is the prayer time determination index. In the northern part of the mosque, this indicator is engraved on a stone that can be used to determine the time of noon prayers. This index is made of stone and has a diagonal line on it.