Let me tell you the truth first. I find only one sentence to describe Rustam’s role: “There are many things to say, you and I said little.” When I started writing, I told myself that I was going to summarize some ancient works in a few brief explanations, but in the first few minutes, the rules of the game changed. Writing those few short sentences was no longer important to me, and I just wanted to read more about it. The more I wrote and the more I read, the less I had to say.
Naghsh-e Rostam is an ancient and historical site in the mountains of Fars province which has Important antiquities include the tombs of Achaemenid kings and lithographs of the Sassanid period. A source of history and civilization located in the heart of the mountain. In this article from Alibaba Tourism Magazine I tried to acquaint you with the details of the role of Rostam Shiraz. I am sure that what can be seen in the role of Rostam Shiraz is much more than this article and the pictures that I provide to you.
What are the tombs of Naghsh-e Rostam?
The four important tombs of the kings of Iran that are in the role of Rostam are: the tomb of Darius the Great, the tomb of Xerxes, the tomb of Ardashir I and the tomb of Darius II
What is the reason for naming Naghsh-e Rostam?
The ancient lithographs in this area are images of the battles and victories of the Persian kings.
Where is Rostam’s role?
Naghsh-e Rostam is one of the valuable antiquities in which the tombs of the great Achaemenid kings and the lithographs of the Sassanid period are located. This ancient region is located in Marvdasht, Shiraz, 10 km away from Persepolis.
How to understand Naghsh-e-Rostam article or guide to reading this article correctly
One of the problems I encountered while writing this text was that I had to describe the carvings on the wall in words. I know that reading the descriptions of the pictures alone not only does not help the person but only confuses him, so at the very beginning I suggest you in each section, match the descriptions with the picture of that ancient work, then the correct mentality of the works You will have a history.
I tried to remove the details as much as possible Let me talk about the generalities and history of the works, which is why this article is like a puzzle. I had a puzzle piece in my hands that explained the antiquities and the main clue that I put on the table for you. It is up to you to pick the next piece of the puzzle and it is in the pictures that you have to look at carefully!
History Rostam role
Hossein Kooh is easily visible from the platform Persepolis , a mountain in the shape of three hills or rocks Big has settled on the ground. Hossein Kooh is also known by other names such as Haji Abad Mountain, Istakhr Mountain or Nafesht Mountain (meaning the mountain of the inscription). Due to its three-hill structure, this mountain was known in the past as “Three Domes”. On each of these three hills, there is a fort and a fort called the pool, the broken fort and the fortified fortress.
The coat of Zias, the Greek historian, has stated in part of his writings” “Two domes are placed inside the tomb on the mountain.” Of course, the meaning of the two domes is the same Hossein Kooh, who either used only two of the rocks at that time or gave the name incorrectly.
In this area, valuable antiquities such as Sassanid-era masonry and tombs in the mountains or burial mounds belonging to the period It is located in Achaemenid. In the Islamic era, stone carvings were attributed to Jamshid and the Kiani kings. The name of Naghsh-e Rostam was known.
When were Naghsh-e-Rostam’s paintings discovered?
Have you ever thought about how to discover antiquities? That with days of effort, patience, a large city or ancient monument suddenly emerges from the ground and surprises everyone. You may be interested to know that the discovery of many important and amazing historical monuments of Iran is due to a person named “Ernest Emil Herzfeld”.
He was a German archaeologist and Iranologist who explored many historical monuments in the country with his excavations (this word is derived from the verb excavation.) Takht-e Rostam of Shiraz and Persepolis of Persepolis are among the same cases. /
Naghsh-e Rostam for the first time in 1302 AH by This researcher was discovered. Herzfeld, after examining the outer walls of the Sassanid fortified structures, excavated the remains of towers and fortifications built to protect it. Watching pictures of the process of exploring the heart of the earth will surely surprise you.
The area where Rostam’s role is located, then From the initial exploration, it was examined by research groups during different time periods. One of these important research groups was the Institute of Oriental Studies at the University of Chicago under the direction of Eric Friedrich Schmidt, a German-American archaeologist.
Other important parts that this group managed to discover in Naghsh-e-Rostam area, we can mention the polygonal reservoir with a diameter of 7.2 meters, which was built with stones from the same place.
Different parts of the role of Rostam Shiraz
In general, the role and antiquities that you see in the role of Rostam can be examined in two ways; The first is based on the series of dates of construction of each and the second according to the location of their location. The conditions are different for the visitor and the tourist who does not specialize in archeology, and probably prefers to get information about each of the antiquities in order from the time of entering the site to leaving it, but given that the contents of this article are taken from the book « Illustrated description of the role of Rostam Pars “, I preferred to introduce these works to you based on the series of their date of construction according to the writing style of the book, so that the dependence and evolution of each of them can be shown well.
The various parts of Naghsh-e Rostam include carved motifs and the tombs of the Achaemenid kings. The tombs built in the role of Rostam Shiraz belong to Darius the Great, Xerxes, Ardashir I and Darius II, respectively, which I will explain in the following.
The Elamite or Elamite role is the oldest ancient work in the role of Rostam. This work has been carved on stone in the Elamite period, which in the Sassanid period, Bahram II replaced his role and that of his courtiers with the Elamite period motifs. Of course, if you look at the pictures a little more closely, you will still see the previous relief.
The Elamite role is a rectangular work with dimensions of 7 meters long and 2.5 meters high. The surviving image shows an Elamite goddess and goddess (two orangutans) sitting on a throne with a snake pattern. Of course, as you can see in the picture, not much is left of this work, but the shape of the snakes and some of the bodies are still recognizable.
On the right side of the image, a man with a long beard and a fringed robe is standing in reverence for the gods. The evidence is based on an image of an Elamite king worshiping God. To the left of the image is a head and a half with a special congressman’s crown, which, given that it has no beard and is relatively more delicate, is probably the image of the Elamite queen standing in front of the king.
The exact date of the Elamite carvings is not known, Herzfield dates it to 4000 years ago, while according to Shapur Shahbazi, the masonry may have taken place in two periods, one in the late second millennium BC, which is related to It has two orangutans and a snake design in the middle of the image, and the other part, which includes the role of the king and queen, is related to the period of 700 AH. Is.
The reason for the sculpture of this image in Naghsh-e Rostam is still unknown, but the existence of an atmospheric source of water and the passage of the caravans have probably not been ineffective in this regard.
The Kaaba of Zoroaster
The Kaaba of Zoroaster is a rectangular stone building that can be seen in the Naghsh-e-Rostam area. This stepped tower, which was built during the Achaemenid period, was formerly known as Kornayeh Khaneh or Naqareh Khaneh, and in the Sassanid period, it was also known as “Bunkhanak”, meaning the main house or foundation house.
Leaving aside the name of the building, we have to go to its shape and inclination. The tower, which has a height of about 12 to 14 meters, including its three steps, the building of the Kaaba of Zoroaster is made of white marble, the pieces of which are carved in the shape of large rectangles. The building blocks are irregularly arranged and a staircase with 30 steps on the north wall leads you to the entrance.
. On the north, south and east sides of the tower, three inscriptions have been recorded in the Sassanid Pahlavi, Parthian and Greek languages, one of which is the most important historical document of the Sassanid period. The architecture and beauty of the Kaaba of Zoroaster is such that no architectural flaws enter it.
Probably this question has also occurred to you that the Kaaba What was the use of Zarathustra? Honestly, there is a lot of speculation about how it works. Some archaeologists have described it as a tomb, others as the fire place of Zoroaster, and some as a place for keeping important documents (treasury of documents). The similarity of the structure of Benkhanak Tower to Suleiman Prison in Pasargad is a clue that guides us in a similar interpretation of the use of these two buildings. /
According to Shapur Shirazi, the most complete scenario is that this building was built during the Achaemenid period as the tomb of an important person and during the Sassanid period was a place to keep important documents such as the original Avesta.
Tomb of Darius the Great in Naghsh-e Rostam
Darius the Great died of natural causes at the age of 64 after 36 years of reign and was buried in his own tomb. The tomb of Darius the Great was carved in the heart of the mountain by his own order and its construction took many years. Now the story of why the tomb was in the heart of the rock.
In the past, the three elements of water, fire and earth were the three important creatures of Ahuramazda that should not be polluted under any circumstances. According to the belief of that time, after death, the devil penetrated the human body, so the body could not be burned, nor could it be buried or thrown into the water. For this reason, the body is placed in the form of a mummy in stone boxes in carved tombs in the heart of the mountain so that they do not have access to these three elements.
Description of the tomb of Darius
Now let’s go to the shape and inclination of the tomb. The tomb of Darius is built in the heart of a rock 60 meters high in the shape of a cross 22 meters high with 9 and 10 meters arms. Note, however, that the cross had no special meaning at that time. In the upper branch of the cross you will see a huge masonry.
In the carving of the upper part of the tomb, a large orangutan can be seen, which has been carried by 28 people from different lands. . In another part of the image of the king in Persian dress, he is standing on a three-step platform, while the fireworks of Shahi and Forouhar are carved next to it in the form of a winged human. The middle part of the cross or the central front is a painted palace that has the same characteristics as Darius’ palace. The palace of the central front with four columns 5.6 meters high at intervals of 3.15 meters with the heads of cows has doubled the grandeur of the tomb. The lower branch of the cross remains unfinished and polished to make the ascent process more difficult.
Inside the tomb of Darius the Great in Naghsh-e Rostam
The tomb of Darius the Great in Naghsh-e Rostam has three chambers. Each of the chambers has 3 stone tombs located next to each other. Evidence shows that these nine tombs belong to Darius and eight of his relatives, but the identity of none of the tombs is definitive and is mostly based on speculation.
In the chamber opposite the entrance to the tomb, one of the tombs has a convex cover and a relatively more delicate appearance than the others, which due to the difference in the appearance of the tomb, this tomb probably belongs to Darius.
Inscriptions of Darius’s tomb
By order of Darius, on the upper front and at the entrance of the palace, two inscriptions or inscriptions in ancient Persian, Elamite and Akkadian (Babylonian) languages have been made. These inscriptions are a kind of spiritual testament in poetic language, which is considered one of the most important historical monuments of the Middle East, showing the strength and great spirit of Darius.
The upper front inscription called DNa is a kind of general and impartial will, and the palace entrance inscription, known as DNb, is a 60-line inscription whose writing has a personal aspect, and unfortunately something of DNb. There is not much left.
Tomb of Xerxes
Xerxes was the son of Darius the Great who was assassinated in 465 BC and his body was transferred to his tomb in the role of Rostam of Shiraz. This tomb was built by order of Xerxes 100 meters east and northeast of Darius’s tomb, the cross structure of the tomb is very similar to Darius’s tomb.
On the upper front of the cross, images of Forouhar, the moon and the royal fire are engraved in the fireplace. In the other part of the cross, Xerxes is sculpted in a state of prayer. Unlike the tomb of Darius the Great, there is no inscription in this building.
Archaeologists have various reasons for attributing this tomb to Xerxes, which I will explain briefly and concisely:
- The masonry features of the tomb are artistically consistent with the features of the works of art of Xerxes.
- This tomb is built on the right side of the tomb of Darius with a similar engraving.
- The most important reason is that the tomb of Xerxes was dug vertically in the heart of the rock, which means that not much time was spent carving it, while the tomb on the left side of the tomb of Darius the Great was built on a steep cliff. Has been. These explanations indicate that the one who chose the better place to build the tomb was sooner involved.
The interior of Xerxes’s tomb consists of a vestibule measuring 3 m by 6.60 m, which is smaller than the tomb of Darius the Great. This ancient building has only one room with three tombs. It is not yet known who was buried next to Xerxes, and archaeologists speculate that one of the tombs may have belonged to Amtris, Hutton’s daughter.
Tomb of Ardashir I
Ardashir I died at the age of 60 after a reign and was buried in a tomb 37 meters to the left of the tomb of Darius the Great in Naghsh-e Rostam. The general structure of the tomb of Ardashir I is similar to the tomb of Darius the Great and Xerxes, the appearance of a cross with stone carvings on its fronts. The images engraved on the tomb are slightly different from the tomb of Darius the Great, but this building is much more damaged and obsolete than other tombs.
Inside the tomb of Ardashir I, imitating the tomb of Darius the Great, it has three chambers, but its main difference with the tomb of Darius is its irregular structure and carelessness, which indicates that it was built by less skilled stonemasonry. . Inside each of the chambers is a tomb, which, based on the more ornate appearance of one of them, probably belongs to Ardashir I. According to historians, Empress Damaspia died on the same day as Ardashir I, and one of his tombs may have belonged to him.
Tomb of Darius II in Naghsh-e Rostam
The westernmost tomb in the role of Rostam of Shiraz is attributed to Darius II, the successor of Ardashir I. This tomb is carved 33 meters southwest of the tomb of Ardashir I, in the heart of the mountain. The appearance of a cross with the same masonry design (image of the emperor, Atshadan, Forouhar and Aurang) with the other three tombs is one of the features of the tomb of Darius II.
The tomb of Darius II is located directly in front of the Kaaba of Zoroaster and at a distance of 45 meters, which of course is a completely unintentional location and for no particular reason.
Inside the tomb of Darius II, like the tomb of Ardashir I, it has irregular masonry and has three chambers. Each chamber has a tomb, one of which belongs to Darius II and probably the other to his wife, Proshiati. There is no speculation about the third grave.
Picture of Ahura Mazda and Ardeshir Babakan
In the eastern corner of Naqsh-e Rostam, Shiraz, on a rock two meters from the ground, is one of the most beautiful and healthy paintings of the Sassanid era. The name of this beautiful stone carving is (naming Ahura Mazda Ardeshir Behshahi), which is usually known as the painting of Ahura Mazda and Ardeshir Babakan.
The size of the rectangular image is 6.65 m by 2.40 m. To the left of the painting, Ardeshir Babakan is profiled, riding a horse and facing Ahur Mazda. Ahuramazda is also engraved on the right side of the image, riding a horse and facing Ardeshir, and has lifted Deihim Shahriari towards Ardeshir with his right hand.
Under the feet of Ardeshir’s horse, the body of Bijan Ardavan is the last Parthian king, and symmetrically on the other side of the picture, the body of the devil is shaved under the feet of Ahuramazda. In addition, a young king can be seen behind a fly. On the chest of the king’s horse, an inscription is engraved in three languages, Greek, Parthian and Sassanid, which is the general meaning of the text in line with the greatness, glory and glory of the king.
If I want to talk to you about the details of this picture, I have to take a few hours. From each of the details in the paintings of Ahura Mazda and Ardeshir Babakan, many points can be deduced from the Sassanid period, events and beliefs of that period. It is interesting that the date of engraving of this painting is not known, but according to the progress and mastery that can be seen in the art of stone carving, the approximate time of stone carving of Ahura Mazda and Ardeshir Babakan is estimated to be 235 AD.
Inscription of Shapur I on the Kaaba of Zoroaster
Until the reign of the Sassanids, the building of the Kaaba of Zoroaster remained intact. Shapur I, who had a famous reign, ordered that the description of his victories be engraved on the wall of the Kaaba tower of Zoroaster. This inscription was engraved in three languages, Greek, Parthian and Sassanid, in imitation of the trilingual inscriptions of the tomb of Darius the Great.
The inscription of Shapur I is one of the most important historical documents of the Sassanid period and has provided many details to archaeologists and historians.
Shapur’s victory over the Roman emperors
Shapur I, the son of Ardashir, was one of the great kings who is famous for his battles and conquests. One of the paintings of Rostam Shiraz is a picture of Shapur’s victory over the Roman emperors. Shapur’s war with Rome was a great battle which, according to the evidence, is believed to have been attended by Shapur himself and the emperor surrendered to him. The image of Shapur’s victory over the Roman emperors is carved ten meters east of the tomb of Darius the Great and has dimensions of 11 meters long and 5 meters wide. In this picture, all the images are depicted several times the actual size and all the details are carefully and based on reality.
In this painting, we see Shapur holding the crown of his father Ardeshir and holding a bearded man on a horse holding a beardless man in Roman clothes on his side. The other image is standing. In the past, holding people’s wrists was a sign of their captivity. Leading Shapur’s Horse A middle-aged man with a curly short beard, wearing a Greek imperial robe and crown, kneels and raises his hands begging Shapur. I refrain from describing the elegance and details of the image, the clothes, چون because you will not realize the depth of its beauty and grandeur until you see the painting closely, and my explanation will be a fruitless endeavor.
There is much debate among archaeologists and historians about the identities of these two people, which is ultimately based on the matching of the faces of the two men with the engraved coins and other historical documents, most likely personal. On his knees, Valerian is the Roman emperor and the captive man is Philip the Arab.
Due to the presence of Valerian in the painting, its construction dates back to 262 AD. Shapur considered himself the emperor of Iranians and non-Iranians and by carving this painting in the heart of Naqsh-e Rostam, he has immortalized his victory.
Picture of Bahram II and the courtiers
The lithograph of Bahram II and the courtiers is one of the valuable and vivid paintings of the Sassanid period in the role of Rostam of Shiraz, which has provided a lot of information about that period to everyone. The date of construction of this painting is estimated to be 290 AD. The painting of Bahram II and the courtiers is 5 meters long and 2.5 meters wide.
I do not take your time and quickly go to the lithograph image. In this image, the emperor Bahram II, with his head to the left, is seen in full in the middle of the image. The half-body image of three people is engraved on the back of the king, and the half-body image of five people is engraved on the front of the head, all but one of whom have raised their index finger in honor of the king.
There are speculations about the identities of the five people on one side of the painting, which are most likely the Shah’s family. The first is the queen, Shapurdakhtak, and the next two are the two young princes. The fourth person is the priest of the priests of Iran Creter and the last person is Prince Narsi, the son of Shapur I and the cousin of Bahram II, he is the only person who has not raised his finger in a state of respect. No exact information is available regarding the identities of the three people on the other side of the image.
The lithograph of the victory of Bahram II
Right in the lower part of the tomb of Darius the Great, there are two lithographs, the upper role of which probably belongs to Bahram II, but historians are not sure about the lower role. In both pictures we see the battle of kings and horsemen who are destroying their enemies.
The upper image or the same image of Bahram II in the battlefield is an image with a length of 7 meters and a width of 3 meters, the date of construction of which is estimated to be 285 AD. In this image, Bahram II on the left side of the image, with a crown from which two eagle wings have been opened, can be seen riding on a horse and attacking the enemy with a spear.
A young man has been killed under the feet of a horse, and a flag-bearer is flying behind the king. The enemy on horseback is also fighting on the opposite side of the image, and based on the type of cover he has, it is clear that he is an important person, but unfortunately his identity remains unknown.
The lower image, with dimensions of 6.70 meters long and 2.35 meters wide, is attached to the previous image and because it is related to the images in the upper image, it is attributed to Mars. The date of construction of this painting is not known, but based on the evidence, it is estimated to be 285 AD. In this lithograph, we see a young and armored ruler riding a horse, defeating enemies with his spear, without a crown on his head, and on his hat there are traces of animal heads, but due to destruction over time, it is not completely clear.
These cover features at the bottom were mostly related to the Sassanid princes, so it is likely that the ruler of this painting is Prince Bahram, who reigned as Bahram III for four months. On the other side of the image, the enemy is fighting, but his identity is unknown due to the destruction of the image.
Cartier’s role in Rostam
Cartier was the cleric of the priests in the period of Bahram II, who increased his position and power during the Sassanid period. During Shapur’s campaigns, he destroyed temples and built fire temples with him. Cartier is known as the founder of the official Sassanid Mazda religion, and in the role of Rostam you will see two antiquities related to Cartier.
The first is the inscription of Cartier, which was carved in a part of the mountain. Half of Carter with his right forearm outstretched in honor of Shapur. At the bottom of Cartier’s body, an inscription with 48 lines in Middle Persian has been carved, which has been severely damaged and not much of it remains.
The second work related to Cartier is an inscription that is carved in 19 lines on the eastern wall of the Kaaba of Zoroaster and is part of Cartier’s biography. This inscription was made in 280 AD and early in the reign of Bahram II.
Anahita and Narcissus
The lithograph of Anahita and Narsi, whose other name is (naming Anahita Narsi Behshahriari), is one of the beautiful and important paintings of Naqsh-e Rostam. Narsi was the son of Shapur I, whose coronation is depicted in this painting.
In the painting of Anahita and Narcissus, Anahita, the goddess of the waters, with a crowned crown and long braided hair, gives the ring of prince or kingdom to Narcissus. Narsi also wears a beautiful crown as king and is receiving the prince ring from Anahita with his left hand. Behind the king there is a picture of a person raising his hand in a state of reverence, which is most likely the crown prince. In addition to these three, a young man has been sculpted between Anahita and the king, which is probably a picture of Hormoz II.
The painting of Anahita and Narcissus remains unfinished and its construction dates back to 300 AD.
Picture of the battle of Hormoz II in the role of Rostam
Below the tomb of Ardashir I in Naghsh-e Rostam, two paintings can be seen, one of which is known as the Battle of the Rider. The upper image is attributed to Azarnarsa and the lower image to Hormoz II, the son of Narsa, who was a benevolent ruler.
In this section, I will describe the picture below, which is called the Battle of Hormuz II. This lithograph, measuring 8.40 meters long and 4 meters wide, depicts a scene from the Battle of Hormuz II. In this painting, Hormoz II is riding his horse, destroying his enemy, who is standing on the other side of the image with a spear in his hand and riding a horse. The spear of Hormuz II has sunk into the enemy’s belly. Behind the king, a man from the Sassanid dynasty can be seen with his flag.
The face of the king has been lost in this painting, but with the help of matching the evidence with the image of Hormoz II that was engraved on the coins and dishes of that time, the face of the king has been identified. The year of the battle of Hormoz II is estimated to be 305 AD.
Picture of Azarners
As I said in the previous section, there are two paintings under the tomb of Ardeshir. The painting above the battle of Hormuz belongs to a parliament. To build this image, part of the rock of the Battle of Hormuz II has been destroyed, indicating that the upper role is newer.
The picture we are talking about remains incomplete and it is clear that they did not have a chance to finish it. Based on all this evidence, Schmidt attributed the painting to Azarnarsa, son of Hormuz II, because he reigned only a few months and was overthrown. If the ratio of Azarners is the correct ratio, its construction is related to the year 38 AD.
Shapur II battle image
Just below the tomb of Darius the Great, there is a huge image of a carved battle that measures 7.60 meters by 3 meters. In this petroglyph, we see the crowned king riding a horse that has sunk its spear into the neck of its rider enemy. The enemy horse has been pulled off the ground and is being overthrown. Next to the picture is a person standing with a flagpole.
The date and identity of the crowned rider are not known in this painting, but according to the evidence and the shape of his crown, archaeologists consider him to belong to the time of Shapur II, hence the name of this painting. The battle of Shapur is the second.
Unshaven shaved page
In the western part of the view of the coronation of Narsi by Anahita, part of the mountain is carved in the shape of a rectangle with dimensions of 10 meters by 5 meters and is ready for carving on which no engraving was carved until 1821 AD. The splendor of this smooth and uniform plate and its special cutting method is reserved for the preparation order by the great king.
Speculation based on evidence indicates that this page was probably carved in 625 AD by order of Khosrow Parviz to perpetuate a glorious role of his coronation or victory, but for some reason This plan is not complete. In 1821, one of the local owners ordered that the deed of King Hajiabad be cut in Persian script on this page, and by doing so, he himself destroyed the polished page.
Access to Rostam
Due to the fact that Naghsh-e Rostam is located in the city of Marvdasht, you must reach this city to visit these ancient monuments. The distance from Shiraz to Marvdasht and Naghsh-e Rostam is about 6 km, which can be reached by car, with the help of on-road signs.
Access to Naghsh-e Rostam Shiraz is also possible through the minibuses and taxis available at the Karandish terminal in Shiraz.
Naghsh-e-Rostam address: Fars province, north of Marvdasht city, Zangiabad village
Visiting hours of Naghsh-e Rostam: It is possible to visit the antiquities in the first half of the year from 8:30 to 19:30 and in the second half of the year from 8 to 17:30.
Naghsh-e-Rostam ticket price: The ticket price is 5 thousand tomans for Iranians and 50 thousand tomans for foreign nationals.
Naghsh-e Rostam has a parking lot, so you can easily visit this building by car.
Distance between Tehran and Naghsh-e Rostam
The distance from Tehran to Marvdasht, where Naghsh-e Rostam is located, is about 880 km, which takes about 9 to 10 hours by car.
Rostam’s role on Google Map
Visit antiquities with eyes and mind armed!
One of my friends, who also happens to be from Shiraz, explained that when he visited Naghsh-e Rostam, he saw only a few carvings in the mountains and did not find them attractive. The history and description of the antiquities of Naghsh-e Rostam do not fit in words and you should go to it with your eyes and mind armed.
What does it mean? That is, study in advance about these sights of Shiraz and prepare your mind, then go to the works of Naghsh-e Rostam and carefully match your information with what you see. I call this armed eyes and minds! In this way, mountain carvings will have a different meaning for you and you will know their value.
Now that my explanation is complete, it is better to say a few words about the tourism atmosphere of Naghsh-e Rostam. Unfortunately, there is no tourist guide for Naghsh-e Rostam and most tourists visit it without enough information and without a guide. Therefore, it may be better to get help from tourist tours, and the tour guide will provide you with additional explanations during this visit.