Shush has one of the most important archeological sites in the world. The uninterrupted settlement from the fifth millennium to the middle of the Islamic period, that is, until the Mongol invasion, is one of the characteristics of Susa that made such a valuable site remain as a heritage for humanity. Existence of religious attractions such as The tomb of Danial nabi and The tomb of Dabal Khazaei Along with natural blessings, it has increased the importance of Susa. Follow us in the travel guide to the city of Susa for a pleasant trip to The famous sights of the city of Shush .
Rabbi Benjamin Todlai, who lived in Iran for 10 years between 1163 and 1173, was the first person to visit the ancient hills and historical sites of Susa while visiting the tomb of Daniel the Prophet. The same Susan mentioned in the Torah. In 1840, a British delegation came to Iran to demarcate the border between Iran and the Ottomans. One member of the group was a geologist and naturalist named William Kent Leftus. This person was the first to realize the importance of the ancient hills of Susa, and registered his name as the first explorer of Susa. He worked in Susa from 1852 to 1849 to discover antiquities
After the discovery of Leftus in the historic city of Susa, the French replaced the British. Marcel Diolafova and his wife, after a period of sightseeing in Iran and an initial visit to the famous sights of the city of Susa, discovered the richness of the ancient hills and in 1883 began excavation in Susa. After Diolafova, Jacques Dumergan, a mining engineer who had previously explored Egypt, was sent to the historic city of Susa to conduct archaeological excavations. The second excavation of all the ancient sites made Iran monopolized by the French government. From 1928, Roland Domenkum replaced Dumergan in Iran. He worked in the same way as Domergan and only sought access to historical objects.
According to the travel guide to the city of Susa, in 1946 Gershman, who was trained at the Louvre Archaeological School, was selected to lead the French group. In fact, by choosing an archaeologist, a fundamental step was taken in the scientificization of French research in Iran. In addition to Shush in Tepe Gian Nahavand Explore Payment. Finally, it was the turn of Jean-Peru to take over as the last head of the French delegation. From the time of his presence, the activities of Susa took on a completely scientific color and smell, and the objects obtained were no longer exported from Iran. A review of previous French excavations in Susa was one of the most important scientific achievements of his presence in Susa.
According to the travel guide to the city of Susa, you should know that with the victory of the Iranian Revolution in 1978, the French left Iran, and after that, the leadership of Susa excavations was entrusted to Iranian archaeologists such as Mir Abedin Kaboli and Mehdi Rahbar. A cable followed the excavation on the western front of the Apadana throne to identify the entrance gates of the throne and the trench of Shahr-e A. Mehdi Rahbar also reconstructed and restored Castle of Shush .
In recent years, on the banks of the Karkheh River, during an archaeological study led by Mohammad Sheikh, stone tools and artifacts related to the Middle Paleolithic period were found. According to the travel guide to the city of Susa, you should know that this area was considered by the hunters of this period due to its rich flora and fauna, permanent river and also the presence of suitable and high quality rubble as raw materials for producing stone tools in the Paleolithic period.
According to the article on a trip to the city of Susa, you should know that Jacques Demorgan in 1897, using one of the clauses of the agreement between Iran and France, which gave the French the exclusive privilege of exploring Susa and then all of Iran, began to build a castle. Susa climbed the highest part of the Susa hills. This is one of the famous sights of Shousha made of raw clay and then using bricks obtained from the excavations of the historical city of Shousha and Choghaznabil, a coating was added on the building, which made this part of the famous sights of Shousha become Brick to the museum.
This hill, on which the ancient castle was also built, was the oldest settlement in the historic city of Susa, and the French in the early 20th century spent most of their energy digging and excavating large parts of this hill in soda. They found exquisite objects that were also successful, and found many important objects such as the Hammurabi Codex, the Naram-Sin monument and the bronze statue of Napirasu, the wife of Ontash Napirasha, king of the Middle Elamite period, and painted pottery from the late fifth millennium on this hill. In the last part of the fifth millennium BC, after the settlement of the historic city of Susa, a memorial and religious platform was built on two floors next to the cemetery of Susa.
This cemetery is one of the oldest cemeteries in the world and one of the famous sights of Susa. In prehistoric times, it was customary for the dead to be buried on the floor or around houses, and one of the hallmarks of this period was exquisite painted pottery, some of which was placed inside graves with the dead. Shahrshahi A workshop is a trench with an area of more than one hectare that was excavated during the 21 years of Gershman excavation in the historical city of Susa to a depth of about 12 meters. Gershman identified 15 cultural layers in the trench from the Islamic, Sassanid, Parthian, Achaemenid and various periods of New, Middle and Old Ilam, respectively.
Apadana Palace has a columned hall made of limestone. At the upper end of the 72 columns, about 20 meters from the hall, there were 72 stone capitals in the shape of two cows sitting in a row, of which only a few specimens remain. The walls of this building were probably made of brick with a brick cover. In addition to the Pillar Hall, the palace includes a courtyard and other sections, including rooms to the south. Other valuable remains of the palace were glazed bricks that decorated the walls with figures of Immortal Guard soldiers and legendary imaginary animals. Also, in a part of the foundation of this palace, two cuneiform inscriptions were obtained from Darius I of the Achaemenid dynasty, in which the construction of this case is described from the famous sights of the city of Susa.
In the eastern part of the palace, a gate from the Achaemenid period was excavated, the roof of which rested on four pillars. The most important find of this gate is a statue of Darius the Achaemenid, which became known as the Egyptian statue of Darius, because this statue has inscriptions in Egyptian hieroglyphics.
On the west side of the Shavar River and four hundred meters west of Apadana Hill, the remains of a building with stone pillars belonging to Ardashir II of the Achaemenid dynasty were found. According to the travel guide to the city of Susa, you should know that the palace has a relatively large complex with a length of 220 meters and a width of 150 meters. The palace had 64 columns, the bottoms of which were made of stone and probably the stems of the pillars were made of wood. Remains of paintings were found in parts of this building, which probably decorated the walls of this palace. In addition to the Achaemenid period, there are settlements from the Parthian and Islamic periods in this area, the most important Islamic remains of which were related to sugarcane refining.
20 km northwest of Susa, the remains of a city from the Sassanid period are located on the west side of the Karkheh River, which is called the ancient site of Ivan Karkheh. In 1950, Gershman explored the Karkheh porch for a month, describing it as a 390-hectare settlement. Much of the brick wall around the city is now visible in the form of earthen ridges. Moghaddasi, a geographer of the fourth century AH, described it as a prosperous city with numerous forts and gardens from which drinking water flowed.
The easternmost part of the ancient hills is called the city of artisans. It seems that there were settlements from the historical period of New Ilam to the Islamic period, especially important works such as the remains of a mosque from the early Islamic centuries, which is characteristic of mosque construction in the early Islamic period. The mosque is excavated with 74 brick pillars and possibly wooden pillars inside and a single brick minaret on the north-east side, of which only the base now remains. Also, a building called Khaneghah was excavated in this section.
The ancient site of Haft Tappeh , which consists of several large and small hills, is located 15 km southeast of Susa. This site was excavated by Iranian archaeologists under the supervision of Dr. Ezatollah Neghaban (1978-1944) and Dr. Behzad Mofidi (since 2002). Archaeological excavations on this ancient site show well that this area has been inhabited from the late Sokol Makh period to Middle Ilam. Also, these excavations show that two Elamite kings, Tepti Ahar and Inshushinak evil Ilani ruled in this city.
The Choghaznabil World Heritage Site is located about 35 km southeast of the Dez River. Although the Choghaznabil ziggurat was first excavated by Domenkam, it was Gershman who conducted extensive and systematic archaeological excavations between 1951 and 1962. The ancient city of Choghaznabil belongs to the Middle Ilam period and was built by Ontash Napirisha (1275-1240 BC). The city has 3 fences; In the area of the first fence of the ziggurat and in the distance between the first and second fences, temples have been built for different gods. The third fence covers the entire city.
Daniel was born in Jerusalem in 598 BC. He is the son of John and a descendant of David. In 586 BC, he and a group of Jews at the age of 12 were captured by the troops of Bakht al-Nasr and exiled to Babylon. In 539 BC, the city of Babylon was conquered by Cyrus the Achaemenid. Daniel migrated to Susa at this time and died during the reign of Darius the Achaemenid.
Dabal Khazaei is a poet of the time of Imam Reza (AS) and has many poems describing the defense of the sanctity of the Ahl al-Bayt. His Ta’ih ode is very famous and has been given special attention by Imam Reza (AS). Throughout the history of Islam, no poet has had the honor of adding a poet to his poems as much as Da’bal. Imam Reza (AS) gives his shirt to Da’bal in return for these precious poems. From the words of Da’bal Khaza’i, it can be mentioned that at that time he said that I have been carrying my gallows for forty years and there is no one to hang me. He was martyred around Susa by the agents of Bani Abbas and was buried in this place.
The Fatah al-Mubin Martyrs’ Memorial is located eight kilometers northwest of Karkheh. This area is the operational axis of the fighters of Fajr camp under the command of Sardar Shahid Majid Baghaei and there are a number of operational trenches of the fighters named Al-Mahdi, Sheikhi, Shelika and traces of the enemy ambushes in the area. Also, on December 10, 2002, the people of Shousha buried eight unknown martyrs and buried them in this memorial.
Fakke is a desert region in the city of Susa. An Iraqi mechanized division was advancing from the Fakkah axis to Shush, where it was confronted by the resistance of the 37th Shiraz Armored Brigade, two battalions of the 21st Hamzah Division, gendarmerie, Basij and IRGC units. Competitive Strait stopped. Islamic fighters in the preliminary Valfajr operation were surrounded by enemy forces after a fierce battle, and some were forced to retreat. For this reason, this area is decorated with the blood of the martyrs of the Valfajr Preliminary and Valfajr 1 operations.