ISNA / According to the latest news, Yazd goldsmithing is one of the arts of very old and experienced industries.
Yazd goldsmith, which has taken on the color and smell of industry today, still has a lot to say in the world and in Iran, but the fact that Yazd goldsmith, which today has led to the registration of the national jewelry brand for this country, shows. There is a lot of work to be done for the development of Yazd in this regard.
But how did Yazd goldsmithing reach its current position? Is there a relationship between jewelry and other industries in Yazd? How did Ghiasuddin Naghshband, the most famous Yazdi weaver, play a role in the history of goldsmithing in this country?
Perhaps one of the most important differences between Yazd goldsmiths and other goldsmiths in Iran and the world is the cultural and social status of this industry in people’s lives; When the Yazidis were involved in diplomacy by designing the jewelry of kings and ambassadors and representatives of other countries, and today, with the livelihood of more than 35,000 Yazidis from this industry, part of the city’s economy is tied to it and all this shows the position of this industry in Yazd. .
Mohammad Hossein Salehi, a registration expert at the General Directorate of Cultural Heritage and a Yazdi researcher, states that Yazd goldsmithing has a long history. In Ganijah, it is a cultural heritage that is an exquisite and first-class work.
Saying that there has been a discussion of goldsmithing and goldsmithing in Yazd since that time, he says: Of course, in the city of Yazd, considering the time of the creation of Yazd and the beginning of civilization and its progress, we will finally go to the post-Islamic era. It arrived so that we definitely had goldsmithing in Yazd in the post-Islamic period.
From fabric and glabton to jewelry
This cultural heritage activist, stating that the arts of Yazd are intertwined, says: textile weaving, gold weaving and cashmere weaving and finally the production of glabton yarn is one of the arts related to goldsmithing, so that weaving is one of the famous industries of Yazd. /
Saying that there were different types of clothes in Yazd, he says: In Sassanid times and in Ferdowsi’s Shahnameh, in the story of Bahram Goor, he talks about clothes (clothes) in which an electric cloth is used, which is the current of Abarkooh region. Which shows that this industry has been in Iran for several thousand years and in the Islamic period and especially in the Safavid period of Yazd with the presence of Khajeh Ghiasuddin Naghshband Yazdi has become famous.
Salehi states: In the time of Khajeh Ghias-ud-Din, who was the court minister and perhaps the best weaver in the history of Iran, we have gold and cashmere weaving in which glabton yarn was used.
“Glabton is a thread whose core is silk and has a very thin wire of gold on it, which is flexible because of its silky core.”
He adds: Achieving this thinness required a special grade. On the one hand, pure gold and low-grade gold could not have this capability. On the other hand, regarding the load of gold, two units of copper, two units of silver and 20 units of gold. Used to reach the desired grade.
This expert in the field of registration, stating that Glabton was produced in Yazd until the second Pahlavi, says: While today Yazd is empty of Glabton and it is an art that is possible in some provinces, on the other hand, there are still people in Yazd. Who are familiar with the science of glabton production and its devices and manufacturing technology.
He states that over time, Glabton has become obsolete and the Glabton-producing class has become unemployed. This group also goes to the usual goldsmith.
Salehi adds: “Since the specialty of this group is gold joinery, they create special products that today are the result of this transformation and change of job of glabton workers, while the grade of glabton production by this group entered goldsmithing and less From Qajar, special productions based on tapestry were created and Yazd flourished.
He points out that in the first Pahlavi period, the reputation of Yazd goldsmithing spread throughout Iran and the world: Yazd reaches its peak in the second Pahlavi period, but in the first Pahlavi period, productions to India, Syria and Arab countries and It is sent all over Iran. Yazd is proposed and even specialized products are produced so that a person has special Syrian products or produces other special products.
Expert in the field of registration of the General Directorate of Cultural Heritage, stating that Yazd fabrics were as specialized as cashmere, says: For example, Kashmiri cashmere is a product of Yazd cashmere that went to Kashmir and such products were specialized based on purposes.
Saying that Reza Samiei, a Yazdi goldsmith, produces trembling fish from fish seen in water, he says: “For example, one of the other goldsmiths, seeing the almond blossom, produces the production of this blossom in a goldsmith.”
Salehi points out that there are prominent families in Yazd goldsmiths: The Samians, the Samians and the goldsmiths’ family are all sisters and brothers who are all prominent masters of Yazd goldsmiths in the second Pahlavi period and “Alireza Samiei And “Ali Samieh Zargar” who were very expert and famous in their time, so that they went beyond their European professors.
He adds: The British representative who was traveling to Iran gave the gift to these two people to make this gift, so it shows that Yazd was making gold. Most of the gold of the Pahlavi kings’ family is from slippers to the crown. Have been made in Yazd.
Dependence of 8000 Yazidis on gold
Saying that foreign gold has been imported today, Salehi says: “The wages that should be given to the craftsman have decreased, the price of gold has increased, it has changed from a cover state to a capital state, and people have turned to melted gold and coins.” And also machinery and industry have led us to see a great history of the future of goldsmithing, but the prediction of its future is vague.
He adds: “We hope that with the measures and arrangements that have been thought out and the specialized and wise measures of these measures, they will improve and return to their peak.
“Nevertheless, we have about 1,000 traditional goldsmiths with cards,” said the cultural heritage expert. Which have a large number of workers, besides all these people, there are also industrial workshops, which include a total of 8000 people in Yazd.
He adds: “All of these people are almost men, and if we count the average of four people in each family, about 35,000 people in Yazd make their living through goldsmithing.”
He states: “This issue is unique in the world and perhaps such a unique issue in the world, and even if we compare the population with a city like Turkey, Yazd is still in the lead.
Salehi, stating that action should be taken to improve this industry in Iran and Yazd, states: In the cultural heritage, we have nationally registered about 20 fields of jewelry, we have registered Yazd as a national city of traditional jewelry and it is ready We are trying to register it globally, but different agencies, such as the municipality, must act, because the mayor is the key to the city and the recipient of the tablet will also be there.
The official states: I suggest that the alleys in which the goldsmiths are famous and old be named after these people, the urban elements and the beautification of the urban space should also be considered in this issue.