Qanats are silent attractions of the city that have no external appearance, no matter how carefully you look at the face of the city, you will not see anything! The aqueduct that I am going to introduce you to is hidden underground in the heart of the city. Zarch aqueduct of Yazd, a city-wide attraction, is under the soil of Yazd, which has provided the water needed by the people of this region for centuries.
In this article from Alibaba Tourism Magazine I will introduce you to Zarch Garden aqueduct. It is the longest aqueduct in the world and has recently been inscribed on the UNESCO World Heritage List. If you want to know exactly where the Zarch aqueduct in Yazd is, what has happened to it in recent centuries and when is the right time to visit it, you have come to the right place; Here are the answers to all your questions.
Where is the Zarch aqueduct?
Zarch aqueduct is the longest aqueduct in the world, which is located in Zarch, Yazd.
What is the access route to Zarch aqueduct?
To visit the Zarch aqueduct, you can go to one of its entrances on Seyed Golsorkh Street in the Kushk-e-Naw neighborhood.
What is the reputation of Zarch Aqueduct for?
This 90 km long aqueduct is the longest aqueduct in the world, which has become famous among the world with its three thousand year old history.
Introduction of Zarch Aqueduct
Everything that becomes famous or beloved among people has one or two special and unique features that separate it from the rest; Now, in your opinion, with what attribute can an aqueduct become global? I mean this is the Zarch aqueduct in Yazd that we are going to talk about. This magnificent aqueduct is known as the longest aqueduct in the world among tourists; This feature has turned Yazd Zarch aqueduct into one of the historical attractions of Yazd.
The element of water is one of the vital factors that the desert cities of the country tried to access in the past; The result of these efforts was the invention and construction of amazing water structures, including the aqueduct. The high skill and knowledge of the ancients in building such structures in the heart of the earth has turned the aqueducts into historical attractions of Yazd.
Zarch aqueduct in Yazd is one of the most important man-made aqueducts that has been registered in the list of national monuments of Iran. This aqueduct is located in the city of Zarch, Yazd, and the reason for its registration is its location. The construction of this aqueduct took many years and several generations have been involved in digging it with empty hands and very few facilities.
Zarch Garden aqueduct in 2016 with a length of 90 km, was registered as the longest aqueduct in the world in the UNESCO World Heritage and annually many Iranian and foreign tourists to visit Yazd sights invites.
The age of the aqueducts
According to various evidences and studies, the construction of Zarch aqueduct in Yazd dates back to 3000 years ago and the Sassanid and Zoroastrian eras. The antiquity of this aqueduct has made it one of the sights of Yazd. In the past, desert cities built aqueducts and karez to supply the water they needed. Water structures such as aqueducts are considered Iranian inventions that provide important evidence of historical, social and cultural background to people today.
After the advent of Islam Iran, Grand Mosque Yazd was built in the area of Zarch Garden aqueduct; The construction of this building on the aqueduct filled a large reservoir under the mosque and created facilities for the construction of a watering hole for ablution inside the mosque. Yazd Zarch aqueduct rods can still be seen in the space of Yazd Grand Mosque and the ablution can still be used by the public.
If I want to talk about the flow rate of Zarch aqueduct in Yazd, I must say that in previous years, the flow rate of the aqueduct was more than 150 liters per second; This amount is equal to the average per capita water consumption of a person per day, which includes the water a person needs for drinking, bathing, washing, and so on.
But now there is no news about this volume of water! Aqueduct discharge is currently about 25 liters per second; The development of Yazd city, construction in the areas related to the aqueduct and the improper digging of various wells in the aqueduct area have caused the Zarch Garden aqueduct to no longer be as waterlogged as in the past, but it is still used for agricultural and irrigation purposes.
In addition to water shortages, these changes have created other problems for the Zarch-e-Sabz aqueduct, including the location of sewer pipes. He pointed to the corridor of the aqueduct! The problem of Zarch aqueduct in Yazd with the city’s sewage needs serious solutions to prevent the destruction of one of the most important sights of Yazd. This aqueduct has been worshiped under the city of Yazd, and the parts that do not have sewage have created many problems for the Zarch aqueduct and the maintenance of this historical monument.
different branches of Zarch aqueduct
Zarch aqueduct of Yazd starts near Fahraj plain and enters Yazd city after passing through Khodik, Dehno, Qasemabad and Akramieh villages. This aqueduct passes under different parts of the city, including the central square of the city called Amir Chakhmaq Square, and finally, after passing through the main bazaar of the city and the Grand Mosque, it leaves the city of Yazd and continues its route to the city of Zarch.
Zarch aqueduct of Yazd with a length of 90 km and more than 1215 wells (this well is also called a rod) On its way, it is one of the man-made wonders that lies underground. The underground world of this aqueduct will surprise every tourist.
Strings of aqueducts usually have the same structure. Each aqueduct consists of main and secondary branches and has a reservoir section for storing water and a tributary for access to running water. Yazd Zarch aqueduct, which has been dug at a depth of 86 meters, has three separate branches called Shirin, Shoor and Ebrahim Khoydaki. In the current situation, only the saline branch is active and the other branches have dried up due to the drop in groundwater level.
Saline branch water is really salty and that is why it is known as saline branch. The cause of this salinity is the mother well of this branch, which is located in the saltwater region. It is interesting to know that the water of this branch of Zarch aqueduct in Yazd was of lower quality than other branches. The Shoor branch, about 72 km long, passes through the foot of the Grand Mosque; The end of the Grand Mosque has access to the aqueduct water with 60 steps.
in all The aqueduct route has skylights that are part of the structure and play an important role in its structure. One of the interesting things about this aqueduct is its square cross-section; All aqueducts have a circular or oval cross section, but the cross section of the Zarch garden aqueduct is square.
Shirin Branch, after crossing Imam Street and the House of the Sadrians, passes the Mohammadiyah Bath, Constitutional Alley and Hosseinieh at around one o’clock and continues on its way to Masjid Jame Street to the tomb of Seyyed Rokn al-Din and Hosseinieh. The time has come. In 1340, the end of the time field was discovered during a drilling operation and was used for some time, but later that year, for various reasons, this entrance was covered with soil and no trace of it remains. 
I would have liked to give you more details about the branches of the aqueduct, but unfortunately more information about the aqueducts was not available. If you have visited these aqueducts or have a related field of study, I will be happy to help you complete this article and get in touch with Alibaba Tourism Magazine through the comments section.
Owners, maintenance and management of aqueducts
Given that many agricultural lands in this area are irrigated with the help of aqueduct water, the maintenance, distribution and distribution of aqueduct water of this magnitude naturally requires specific planning. This specific program is developed by a council called the Zarch Aqueduct Council.
Zarch Aqueduct Council consists of a group of 5 members selected by the owners and operators of the aqueduct. 2 council members are from Sarcheshmeh area and 3 of them are from Zarch mass.
One of these members is a full-time representative of the council for one year, who will be the liaison between the farmers and the departments and will receive the necessary assistance from the owners. The Plenipotentiary Representative of the Council has responsibilities related to operations such as protection, maintenance, excavation of the worker, capture of the subterranean worker, payment of the worker’s wages, etc.
Two members of the council also They are responsible for distributing and distributing water for one year. One person distributes in Sarcheshmeh and the other in the area of Zarch aqueduct in Yazd. This person, known as (Mirab), sets a specific schedule for each person’s right to water in turn and gives water to farmers.
The source of Zarch aqueduct in Yazd is water for 6 days and Zarch mass is water for 9 days and nights. Mirab also has a salary in this process, which is known as (dam). Mirab’s salary is paid to him from the share of water; This portion is equal to one sip of water once every 15 days, which is equivalent to 11 minutes.
The number of owners of Zarch aqueduct is 10 families and the cultivated lands of this aqueduct are about 40 hectares. Keep in mind that the city of Yazd has an area of about 550 hectares and the area covered by this irrigation aqueduct is very large.
Things you do not know about the Zarch aqueduct
This aqueduct is not only famous for its historical attractions, but also interesting events have taken place in it.
Qanat marriage in Yazd
Each region and city has its own customs and traditions that may no longer be popular among the people, but it will be interesting for tourists to narrate these customs and ceremonies. One of these strange ceremonies was the wedding of Qanat in Yazd!
According to Ali Asghar Samsar Yazdi, senior consultant at the International Center for Aqueducts and Historic Water Structures, in the past, when the aqueduct’s water supply was reduced or they faced a drought problem, they solved the problem by marrying the aqueduct. During this ceremony, one of the widows of the village was taken to the depths of the aqueduct in a ceremony similar to a wedding ceremony; This woman was considered the wife of Qanat until the end of her life!
All the expenses of the wife of the aqueduct were paid by the owners of the aqueduct by the aqueduct, and this was also a part of the expenses of the aqueduct such as dredging, repair and so on. According to research, Qanat’s last wife has been dead for nearly 40 years, and no such ceremony has been held in Yazd for years.
Zarch aqueduct mills
It is interesting to know that there are two water mills along the Zarch aqueduct in Yazd: Wazir Mill and Kushkeno Mill. This aqueduct will move two mills along the water path, each of which is a kind of historical heritage and is being restored.
The structure of the water mill was such that water first entered the furnace. When the mill valve was closed, water would collect behind the furnace, and when the valve was opened, the water pressure would cause the turbine to spin and the rough rock to move on the bottom rock. This movement of the stones on top of each other turned the wheat into flour.
Save the Zarch aqueduct
The book Zarch Aqueduct, along with other researches conducted by Ali Asghar Samsar Yazdi in the field of aqueducts in the country and Yazd province, provided the necessary support for the registration of this aqueduct and 10 other aqueducts in the World Heritage List. This world record is in fact the beginning of saving the Zarch aqueduct in Yazd and the hope of reviving it.
Documentary about Zarch aqueduct
If you have not yet seen the Zarch aqueduct up close, you can imagine yourself in the aqueduct space by watching the documentary “Ossia”. Writing this whole article on the one hand, the very few minutes of the documentary I saw from the aqueduct space with my own eyes changed all my imagination, maybe it is better to say instead of change, it deepened my imagination.
Ossia Documentary is one of the productions of the Center for the Development of Documentary and Experimental Cinema, directed by Alireza Dehghan, which was made about the Zarch aqueduct in 2015 and 2016. This film is about the death of Qanat, which is the result of the negligence of industry officials and the wrong lifestyle of the people.
The best time to visit the aqueducts
If you are sensitive to hot weather, you should know that Yazd is one of the hottest cities in the country, so the best time to travel to this region and visit the Zarch aqueduct in Yazd is from early March to mid-May. During this period, the temperate climate of the city provides a good opportunity to tour and visit the sights of Yazd.
You may be one of those people who care about the crowded or secluded city when traveling. In this case, I consider it my duty to tell you to refrain from traveling to Yazd during the Nowruz holiday! The historical attractions of Yazd have turned it into one of the tourist destinations during the Nowruz holiday.
If you are traveling in the privacy of the city, summer is a better season. Of course, the summer heat is unbearable and you have to visit cool areas such as aqueducts to cool down.
Where is the Zarch aqueduct?
Address of Zarch Aqueduct, Yazd: Yazd, Seyed Golsorkh St., Kooshak No neighborhood
Zarch aqueduct of Yazd on Google Map
Yazd Zarch aqueduct, underground booklet
I think that so far, the article on the wonders of the Zarch aqueduct in Yazd has taken care of you. This huge aqueduct has gone through centuries of ups and downs to get here. This time, during your trip to Yazd, it is better to plan to visit this aqueduct and take a deeper look at these silent water wells.
It is true that there are many dangers to the life of this underground booklet today, but the registration of this historical attraction in the UNESCO World Heritage List has increased the chances of restoring this aqueduct and prolonging its life; It can be hoped that with the help of the General Directorate of Cultural Heritage, little change will be made in the facilities of this historical attraction and suitable conditions will be provided for domestic and foreign tourists to visit so that everyone can walk on the path full of wonders of the aqueduct.